Match the agent of microevolution to its description:
chance alterations of allele frequencies, having the greatest effect on small populations
b. gene flow
a process through which traits that confer a reproductive advantage to individuals are seen with greater frequency in succeeding generations of a population
c. natural selection
movement of alleles between populations by migration
d. genetic drift
genetic drift brought about by migration of a subpopulation
e. founder effect
changes in the genetic material
Finches in the Galapagos experienced __________selection on beak depth following a drought; the African finch P. ostrinus experienced __________ selection on beak size because it eats either very small, soft seeds or much larger, hard seeds.
a. stabilizing, directional
b. sexual, disruptive
c. directional, disruptive
d. disruptive, directional
e. stabilizing, disruptive
In science, a theory is:
a. an untested hypothesis.
b. a general set of principles, supported by evidence, that explains some aspect of the natural world.
c. speculation about the natural world, based on general knowledge of a field.
d. an observation.
e. the first idea proposed to explain some aspect of the natural world.
Which of the following are central ideas in the theory of evolution by natural selection? (List all that apply.)
a. Organisms vary in traits that affect their reproduction.
b. Descent with modification occurs over generations.
c. Evolution has a goal.
d. Traits that confer a reproductive advantage will become more common in populations over time.
e. Traits that are acquired during the life of an individual contribute to evolution.
Which of the following observations provide evidence for evolution? (List all that apply.)
a. Monkey and trilobite fossils are never found in the same fossil beds.
b. Athletic training can produce an increase in muscle mass.
c. DNA sequences of genes shared by various species vary in accordance with predictions about how closely related those species are.
d. The genetic code is nearly universal.
e. Species whose adult forms look very different may have similar features in embryonic life.
During the formulation of his theory of evolution by natural selection, Darwin brought together ideas and results from several disciplines. Match the person with the phrase that describes his work.
Evidence of extinction of species
One form of organism can evolve into another
Natural selection as a mechanism underlying evolution
Geological forces observable today caused changes in Earth